The Art of War Chapter 3 (孙子兵法第三章).
Author : SunTzu (SunZi in Chinese PinYin)
Móu gōng piān
sūn zǐ yuē: Fū yòngbīng zhī fǎ, quánguó wéi shàng, pò guó cì zhī, quán jūn wéi shàng, pò jūn cì zhī; quán lǚ wéi shàng, pò lǚ cì zhī; quán zú wéi shàng, pò zú cì zhī; quán wǔ wéi shàng, pò wǔ cì zhī. shì gù bǎi zhàn bǎishèng, fēi shànzhī shàn zhě yě; bù zhàn ér qū rén zhī bīng, shànzhī shàn zhě yě.
Gù shàng bīng fá móu, qícì fá jiāo, qícì fá bīng, qí xià gōng chéng. Gōng chéng zhī fǎ wéi bùdéyǐ. Xiū lǔ fén wēn, jù qìxiè, sān yuè érhòu chéng, jù yīn, yòu sān yuè érhòu yǐ. Jiāng bù shēng qí fèn ér yǐ fù zhī, shā shì sān fēn zhī yī ér chéng bù bá zhě, cǐ gōng zhī zāi yě.
Gù shàn yòngbīng zhě, qū rén zhī bīng ér fēi zhàn yě, bá rén zhī chéng ér fēi gōng yě, huǐ rén zhī guó ér fēi jiǔyě, bì yǐ quán zhēng yú tiānxià. Gù bīng bù dùn ér lì kě quán, cǐ móu gōng zhī fǎ yě.
Gù yòngbīng zhī fǎ, shí zé wéi zhī, wǔ zé gōng zhī, bèi zé fēn zhī, dí zé néng zhàn zhī, shǎo zé néng táo zhī, bù ruò zé néng bì zhī. Gù xiǎo dí zhī jiān, dà dí zhī qín yě.
Fū jiàng zhě, guózhī fǔ yě fǔ zhōu, zé guó bì qiáng; fǔ xì, zé guó bì ruò.
Gù jūn zhī suǒyǐ huàn yú jūn zhě sān: Bùzhī jūn zhī bù kěyǐ jìn’ér wèi zhī jìn, bùzhī jūn zhī bù kěyǐ tuì ér wèi zhī tuì, shì wèi “mí jūn”; bùzhī sānjūn zhī shì, ér tóng sānjūn zhī zhèng zhě, zé jūnshì huò yǐ; bùzhī sānjūn zhī quán, ér tóng sānjūn zhī rèn, zé jūnshì yí yǐ. sānjūn jì huò qiě yí, zé zhūhóu zhī nán zhì yǐ, shì wèi “luàn jūn yǐn shèng”.
Gùzhī shèng yǒu wǔ: Zhī kěyǐ zhàn yǔ bù kěyǐ zhàn zhě shèng, shì zhòng guǎ zhī yòng zhě shèng, shàngxià tóng yù zhě shèng, yǐ yú dài bùyú zhě shèng, jiāng néng ér jūn bù yù zhě shèng cǐ wǔ zhě, zhī shèng zhī dào yě.
Gù yuē: Zhī bǐ zhījǐ zhě, bǎizhànbùdài; bùzhī bǐ ér zhījǐ, yī shèng yī fù, bùzhī bǐ, bù zhījǐ, měi zhàn bì dài.
Chapter 3: strategy
Sun Tzu said that the principle of war is to force the enemy to surrender without resisting, which is the best strategy, and secondly to defeat the enemy.In the battle, priority should also be given to force the enemy’s troops and soldiers to surrender, and then to consider destroying them.Therefore, win all battles are not the best of the good military strategy. If you do not start a war and let the enemy yield, it is the best military strategy.
Therefore, the best war plan is to win the enemy with strategy, followed by diplomacy to defeat the enemy, then is the destroy enemy forces in the wild， the worst is the siege enemy’s cities, this should be the last option.In order to attack the city, build siege vehicles, chariots, and prepare various siege devices, which maybe completed in three months; it takes another three months to complete the mounds of siege.At this time, the commanders have become anxious and violent, driving the soldiers to climb the city like ants. If lost one-third soldiers and the city can not be taken, that will be disaster!
Therefore, those who know the war rely on strategy rather than force to defeat the enemy. Take enemy’s cities does not give priority to the frontal attack, and defeating the enemy will not last long. The Best is, defeat your enemies while preserving yourself. Then, defeating the enemy with the least loss is the so-called strategy.
Based on experience, If you have ten times the enemy’s strength, encircle and destroy the enemy at will. If you have five times the enemy’s strength, attack and destory the enemy fiercely. If you have double enemy’s strength, divide and destroy the enemy.If the enemy’s strength is equal, you can fight against it. If you are less than the enemy’s strength, you will get rid of the enemy. If the enemy is strong enough, avoid the enemy.The consequence of weak against strong is to become prisoner.
The general is the assistant of the monarch. With his careful support, the country will be strong; If there are too many omissions, the country will inevitably weaken.
There are three aspects that damage to the army caused by the monarch :
Command the army to forward when they can’t forward, let them retreat when they can’t retreat. This is called restraining and smashing the army;Do not understand the military affairs but interfere in the military administration, then the sergeant will be confused; Do not know the military strategy but participate in the military command, then the soldiers will doubt.If the army is full of confusion and suspicion, the enemy will take the opportunity to launch an attack. Disrupting your own army will give victory to the enemy.
There are five predictions to win: know what conditions you can fight, what conditions you can’t fight, win; know how to distinguish between strong and weak, and use it flexibly, win. Leadership and executive level ideas are consistent, win,Well prepared against unprepared , win. The generals are talented, and the monarch does not interfere with them, win. These five are the ways to predict the outcome.
Therefore: understanding the enemy also understands yourself, unbeatable in battle; if you don’t understand the enemy but understand yourself, there is a half-win rate; if you don’t understand the enemy and you don’t understand yourself, every battle will be defeated.