The art of war chapter 13 : The Use of Spies , in English and Chinese with PinYin:
Author Sun Tzu.
Sūn zǐ yuē: Fán huǒ gōng yǒu wǔ: Yī yuē huǒ rén, èr yuē huǒ jī, sān yuē huǒ zī, sì yuē huǒ kù, wǔ yuē huǒ duì. Xíng huǒ bì yǒu yīn, yān huǒ bì sù jù. Fā huǒ yǒu shí, qǐ huǒ yǒu rì. Shí zhě, tiān zhī zào yě; rì zhě, yuè zài jī, bì, yì, zhěn yě. Fán cǐ sì sù zhě, fēng qǐ zhī rì yě.
Gù míng jūn xián jiāng, suǒ yǐ dòng ér shèng rén, chéng gōng chū yú zhòng zhě, xiān zhī yě. Xiān zhì zhě, bù kě qǔ yú guǐ shén, bù kě xiàng yú shì, bù kě yàn yú dù, bì qǔ yú rén, zhī dí zhī qíng zhě yě. Gù yòng jiān yǒu wǔ: Yǒu yīn jiān, yǒu nèi jiān, yǒu fǎn jiàn, yǒu sǐ jiān, yǒu shēng jiān.
Wǔ jiān jù qǐ, mò zhī qí dào, shì wèi shén jì, rén jūn zhī bǎo yě. Yīn jiān zhě, yīn qí xiāng rén ér yòng zhī. Nèi jiān zhě, yīn qí guān rén ér yòng zhī. Fǎn jiàn zhě, yīn qí dí jiān ér yòng zhī. Sǐ jiān zhě, wèi kuáng shì yú wài, lìng wú jiān zhī zhī, ér chuán yú dí jiān yě. Shēng jiān zhě, fǎn bào yě.
Gù sānjūn zhī shì, mò qīn yú jiān, shǎng mò hòu yú jiān, shì mò mì yú jiān. Fēi shèng zhì bù néng yòng jiān, fēi rényì bù néng shǐ jiān, fēi wéi miào bù néng dé jiān zhī shí. Wēi zāi! Wēi zāi! Wú suǒ bù yòng jiān yě. Jiān shì wèi fā, ér xiān wén zhě, jiān yǔ suǒ gào zhě jiē sǐ.
Fán jūn zhī suǒ yù jī, chéng zhī suǒ yù gōng, rén zhī suǒ yù shā, bì xiān zhī qí shǒu jiāng, zuǒ yòu, yè zhě, mén zhě, shě rén zhī xìng míng, lìng wú jiān bì suǒ zhī zhī.
Bì suǒ dí rén zhī jiān lái jiān wǒ zhě, yīn’ér lì zhī, dǎo ér shě zhī, gù fǎn jiàn kě dé ér yòng yě. Yīn shì ér zhī zhī, gù xiāng jiān, nèi jiān kě dé ér shǐ yě; yīn shì ér zhī zhī, gù sǐ jiān wèi kuáng shì, kě shǐ gào dí. Yīn shì ér zhī zhī, gù shēng jiān kě shǐ rúqí. Wǔ jiān zhī shì, zhǔ bì zhī zhī, zhī zhī bì zàiyú fǎn jiàn, gù fǎn jiàn bùkě bù hòu yě.
Xī yīn zhī xìng yě, yī zhì zài xià; zhōu zhī xìng yě, lǚ yá zài yīn. Gù wéi míng jūn xián jiāng, néng yǐ shàng zhì wèi jiān zhě, bì chéng dà gōng. Cǐ bīng zhī yào, sān jūn zhī suǒ shì ér dòng yě.
The art of war chapter 13 : The Use of Spies
Sun Tzu said: Raising a host of a hundred thousand men and marching them great dis- tances entails heavy loss on the people and a drain on the resources of the State. The daily expenditure will amount to a thousand ounces of silver. There will be commotion at home and abroad, and men will drop down exhausted on the highways. As many as seven hundred thousand families will be impeded in their labor. Hostile armies may face each other for years, striving for the victory which is decided in a single day. This being so, to remain in ignorance of the enemy’s condition simply because one grudges the outlay of a hundred ounces of silver in honors and emoluments, is the height of in- humanity. One who acts thus is no leader of men, no present help to his sovereign, no master of victory.
Thus, what enables the wise sovereign and the good general to strike and conquer, and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge.
Now this foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits; it cannot be obtained induct- ively from experience, nor by any deductive calculation. Knowledge of the enemy’s dis- positions can only be obtained from other men. Hence the use of spies, of whom there are five classes:
Local spies; inward spies; converted spies; doomed spies; surviving spies.
When these five kinds of spy are all at work, none can discover the secret system. This is called “divine manipulation of the threads.” It is the sovereign’s most precious faculty.
Having local spies means employing the services of the inhabitants of a district. Having inward spies, making use of officials of the enemy.
Having converted spies, getting hold of the enemy’s spies and using them for our own purposes.
Having doomed spies, doing certain things openly for purposes of deception, and al- lowing our spies to know of them and report them to the enemy.
Surviving spies, finally, are those who bring back news from the enemy’s camp.
Hence it is that which none in the whole army are more intimate relations to be maintained than with spies. None should be more liberally rewarded. In no other busi- ness should greater secrecy be preserved.
Spies cannot be usefully employed without a certain intuitive sagacity.
They cannot be properly managed without benevolence and straightforwardness.
Without subtle ingenuity of mind, one cannot make certain of the truth of their reports.
Be subtle! be subtle! and use your spies for every kind of business.
If a secret piece of news is divulged by a spy before the time is ripe, he must be put to death together with the man to whom the secret was told.
Whether the object be to crush an army, to storm a city, or to assassinate an individu- al, it is always necessary to begin by finding out the names of the attendants, the aides- de-camp, and door-keepers and sentries of the general in command. Our spies must be commissioned to ascertain these.
The enemy’s spies who have come to spy on us must be sought out, tempted with bribes, led away and comfortably housed. Thus they will become converted spies and available for our service.
It is through the information brought by the converted spy that we are able to acquire and employ local and inward spies.
It is owing to his information, again, that we can cause the doomed spy to carry false tidings to the enemy.
Lastly, it is by his information that the surviving spy can be used on appointed occasions.
The end and aim of spying in all its five varieties is knowledge of the enemy; and this knowledge can only be derived, in the first instance, from the converted spy. Hence it is essential that the converted spy be treated with the utmost liberality.
Of old, the rise of the Yin dynasty was due to I Chih who had served under the Hsia. Likewise, the rise of the Chou dynasty was due to Lu Ya who had served under the Yin. Hence it is only the enlightened ruler and the wise general who will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of spying and thereby they achieve great results. Spies are a most important element in water, because on them depends an army’s ability to move.