The art of war chapter 12 (孙子兵法第十二章) in English and Chinese

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2 years ago

The art of war chapter 12 : The Attack by Fire , in English and Chinese with PinYin:

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Author Sun Tzu.

Chinese With PinYin:

孙子曰:凡火攻有五:一曰火人,二曰火积,三曰火辎,四曰火库,五曰火队。行火必有因,烟火必素具。发火有时,起火有日。时者,天之燥也;日者,月在箕、壁、翼、轸也。凡此四宿者,风起之日也。
Sūn zǐ yuē: Fán huǒ gōng yǒu wǔ: Yī yuē huǒ rén, èr yuē huǒ jī, sān yuē huǒ zī, sì yuē huǒ kù, wǔ yuē huǒ duì. Xíng huǒ bì yǒu yīn, yān huǒ bì sù jù. Fā huǒ yǒushí, qǐ huǒ yǒu rì. Shí zhě, tiān zhī zào yě; rì zhě, yuè zài jī, bì, yì, zhěn yě. Fán cǐ sì sù zhě, fēng qǐ zhī rì yě.

凡火攻,必因五火之变而应之。火发于内,则早应之于外。火发兵静者,待而勿攻,极其火力,可从而从之,不可从而止。火可发于外,无待于内,以时发之。火发上风,无攻下风。昼风久,夜风止。凡军必知有五火之变,以数守之。
Fán huǒ gōng, bì yīn wǔ huǒ zhī biàn ér yīng zhī. Huǒ fā yú nèi, zé zǎo yīng zhī yú wài. Huǒ fā bīng jìng zhě, dài ér wù gōng, jíqí huǒ lì, kě cóng’ér cóng zhī, bù kě cóng’ér zhǐ. Huǒ kě fā yú wài, wú dài yú nèi, yǐ shí fā zhī. Huǒ fā shàng fēng, wú gōng xià fēng. Zhòu fēng jiǔ, yè fēng zhǐ. Fán jūn bì zhī yǒu wǔ huǒ zhī biàn, yǐ shù shǒu zhī.

故以火佐攻者明,以水佐攻者强。水可以绝,不可以夺。夫战胜攻取,而不修其功者凶,命曰费留。故曰:明主虑之,良将修之。非利不动,非得不用,非危不战。主不可以怒而兴师,将不可以愠而致战;合于利而动,不合于利而止。
Gù yǐ huǒ zuǒ gōng zhě míng, yǐ shuǐ zuǒ gōng zhě qiáng. Shuǐ kě yǐ jué, bù kě yǐ duó. Fū zhàn shèng gōng qǔ, ér bù xiū qí gōng zhě xiōng, mìng yuē fèi liú. Gù yuē: Míng zhǔ lǜ zhī, liáng jiāng xiū zhī. Fēi lì bù dòng, fēi děi bù yòng, fēi wéi bù zhàn. Zhǔ bù kě yǐ nù ér xīng shī, jiāng bù kě yǐ yùn ér zhì zhàn; hé yú lì ér dòng, bù hé yú lì ér zhǐ.

怒可以复喜,愠可以复悦;亡国不可以复存,死者不可以复生。故明君慎之,良将警之,此安国全军之道也。
Nù kě yǐ fù xǐ, yùn kě yǐ fù yuè; wáng guó bù kě yǐ fù cún, sǐ zhě bù kěyǐ fù shēng. Gù míng jūn shèn zhī, liáng jiāng jǐng zhī, cǐ ān guó quán jūn zhī dào yě.

English Translation:

The art of war chapter 12: The Attack by Fire

Sun Tzu said: There are five ways of attacking with fire. The first is to burn soldiers in their camp; the second is to burn stores; the third is to burn baggage trains; the fourth is to burn arsenals and magazines; the fifth is to hurl dropping fire amongst the enemy. In order to carry out an attack, we must have means available. The material for raising fire should always be kept in readiness. There is a proper season for making attacks with fire, and special days for starting a conflagration. The proper season is when the weather is very dry; the special days are those when the moon is in the constellations of the Sieve, the Wall, the Wing or the Cross-bar; for these four are all days of rising wind. In attacking with fire, one should be prepared to meet five possible developments:

When fire breaks out inside to enemy’s camp, respond at once with an attack from without. If there is an outbreak of fire, but the enemy’s soldiers remain quiet, bide your time and do not attack. When the force of the flames has reached its height, follow it up with an attack, if that is practicable; if not, stay where you are. If it is possible to make an assault with fire from without, do not wait for it to break out within, but deliver your attack at a favorable moment. When you start a fire, be to windward of it. Do not attack from the leeward.

A wind that rises in the daytime lasts long, but a night breeze soon falls.
In every army, the five developments connected with fire must be known, the move- ments of the stars calculated, and a watch kept for the proper days.
Hence those who use fire as an aid to the attack show intelligence; those who use wa- ter as an aid to the attack gain an accession of strength.
By means of water, an enemy may be intercepted, but not robbed of all his belongings.

Unhappy is the fate of one who tries to win his battles and succeed in his attacks without cultivating the spirit of enterprise; for the result is waste of time and general stagnation.
Hence the saying: The enlightened ruler lays his plans well ahead; the good general cultivates his resources.
Move not unless you see an advantage; use not your troops unless there is something to be gained; fight not unless the position is critical.
No ruler should put troops into the field merely to gratify his own spleen; no general should fight a battle simply out of pique.

If it is to your advantage, make a forward move; if not, stay where you are. Anger may in time change to gladness; vexation may be succeeded by content.
But a kingdom that has once been destroyed can never come again into being; nor can the dead ever be brought back to life.
Hence the enlightened ruler is heedful, and the good general full of caution. This is the way to keep a country at peace and an army intact.

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