The art of war chapter 10 : Terrain , in English and Chinese with PinYin:
Author Sun Tzu.
Sūn zǐ yuē: Dì xíng yǒu tōng zhě, yǒu guà zhě, yǒu zhī zhě, yǒu ài zhě, yǒu xiǎn zhě, yǒu yuǎn zhě. Wǒ kě yǐ wǎng, bǐ kě yǐ lái, yuē tōng.
Sun Tzu said： We may distinguish six kinds of terrain， to wit： 1, Accessible ground； 2, entangling ground； 3, temporizing ground； 4, narrow passes； 5, precipitous heights； 6, positions at a great distance from the enemy.
Ground which can be freely traversed by both sides is called accessible.
With regard to ground of this nature， be before the enemy in occupying the raised and sunny spots， and carefully guard your line of supplies. Then you will be able to fight with advantage.
Ground which can be abandoned but is hard to re-occupy is called entangling.
Guà xíng zhě, dí wú bèi, chū ér shèng zhī, dí ruò yǒu bèi, chū ér bù shèng, nányǐ fǎn, bù lì. Wǒ chū ér bùlì, bǐ chū ér bù lì, yuē zhī.
From a position of this sort， if the enemy is unprepared， you may sally forth and defeat him. But if the enemy is prepared for your coming， and you fail to defeat him， then， return being impossible， disaster will ensue.
When the position is such that neither side will gain by making the first move， it is called temporizing ground.
Zhī xíng zhě, dí suī lì wǒ, wǒ wú chū yě, yǐn ér qù zhī, lìng dí bàn chū ér jī zhī lì.
In a position of this sort， even though the enemy should offer us an attractive bait， it will be advisable not to stir forth， but rather to retreat， thus enticing the enemy in his turn； then， when part of his army has come out， we may deliver our attack with advantage.
Ài xíng zhě, wǒ xiān jū zhī, bì yíng zhī yǐ dài dí. Ruò dí xiān jū zhī, yíng ér wù cóng, bù yíng ér cóng zhī.
With regard to narrow passes， if you can occupy them first， let them be strongly garrisoned and await the advent of the enemy.
Should the army forestall you in occupying a pass， do not go after him if the pass is fully garrisoned， but only if it is weakly garrisoned.
Xiǎn xíng zhě, wǒ xiān jū zhī, bì jū gāo yáng yǐ dài dí; ruò dí xiān jū zhī, yǐn ér qù zhī, wù cóng yě.
With regard to precipitous heights， if you are beforehand with your adversary， you should occupy the raised and sunny spots， and there wait for him to come up.
If the enemy has occupied them before you， do not follow him， but retreat and try to entice him away.
Yuǎn xíng zhě, shì jūn nán yǐ tiǎo zhàn, zhàn ér bù lì. Fán cǐ liù zhě, de zhī dào yě, jiāng zhī zhì rèn, bù kě bù chá yě.
If you are situated at a great distance from the enemy， and the strength of the two armies is equal， it is not easy to provoke a battle， and fighting will be to your disadvantage.
These six are the principles connected with Earth. The general who has attained a responsible post must be careful to study them.
Fán bīng yǒu zǒu zhě, yǒu chí zhě, yǒu xiàn zhě, yǒu bēng zhě, yǒu luàn zhě, yǒu běi zhě. Fán cǐ liù zhě, fēi tiān dì zhī zāi, jiāng zhī guò yě.
Now an army is exposed to six several calamities， not arising from natural causes， but from faults for which the general is responsible. These are： 1, Flight； 2, insubordination； 3, collapse；4,ruin； 5, disorganization； 6,rout.
Fū shì jūn, yǐ yī jī shí, yuē zǒu; zú qiáng lì ruò, yuē chí; lì qiáng zú ruò, yuē xiàn;
Other conditions being equal， if one force is hurled against another ten times its size， the result will be the flight of the former.
When the common soldiers are too strong and their officers too weak， the result is insubordination. When the officers are too strong and the common soldiers too weak， the result is collapse.
Dà lì nù ér bù fú, yù dí duì ér zì zhàn, jiāng bù zhī qí néng, yuē bēng;
When the higher officers are angry and insubordinate， and on meeting the enemy give battle on their own account from a feeling of resentment， before the commander-in-chief can tell whether or no he is in a position to fight， the result is ruin.
Jiāng ruò bù yán, jiào dào bù míng, lì zú wú cháng, chénbīng zòng héng, yuē luàn;
When the general is weak and without authority； when his orders are not clear and distinct； when there are no fixes duties assigned to officers and men， and the ranks are formed in a slovenly haphazard manner， the result is utter disorganization.
Jiāng bù néng liào dí, yǐ shǎo hé zhòng, yǐ ruò jī qiáng, bīng wú xuǎn fēng, yuē běi.
When a general， unable to estimate the enemy’s strength， allows an inferior force to engage a larger one， or hurls a weak detachment against a powerful one， and neglects to place picked soldiers in the front rank， the result must be rout.
Fán cǐ liù zhě, bài zhī dào yě, jiāng zhī zhì rèn, bùkě bù chá yě. Fū dì xíng zhě, bīng zhī zhù yě. Liào dí zhì shèng, jì xiǎn ài yuǎn jìn, shàng jiàng zhī dào yě.
These are six ways of courting defeat， which must be carefully noted by the general who has attained a responsible post.
The natural formation of the country is the soldier’s best ally； but a power of estimating the adversary， of controlling the forces of victory， and of shrewdly calculating difficulties， dangers and distances， constitutes the test of a great general
Zhī cǐ ér yòng zhàn zhě bì shèng, bù zhī cǐ ér yòng zhàn zhě bì bài. Gù zhàn dào bì shèng, zhǔ yuē wú zhàn, bì zhàn kě yě; zhàn dào bù shèng, zhǔ yuē bì zhàn, wú zhàn kě yě.
He who knows these things， and in fighting puts his knowledge into practice， will win his battles. He who knows them not， nor practices them， will surely be defeated.
If fighting is sure to result in victory， then you must fight， even though the ruler forbid it； if fighting will not result in victory， then you must not fight even at the ruler’s bidding.
Gù jìn bù qiú míng, tuì bù bì zuì, wéi mín shì bǎo, ér lìyú zhǔ, guó zhī bǎo yě. Shì zú rú yīng’ér, gù kě yǐ yǔ zhī fù shēn xī; shì zú rú ài zǐ, gù kě yǔ zhī jù sǐ.
The general who advances without coveting fame and retreats without fearing disgrace， whose only thought is to protect his country and do good service for his sovereign， is the jewel of the kingdom.
Regard your soldiers as your children， and they will follow you into the deepest valleys； look upon them as your own beloved sons， and they will stand by you even unto death.
Hòu ér bùnéng shǐ, ài ér bù néng lìng, luàn ér bù néng zhì, pì ruò jiāo zǐ, bùkě yòng yě.
If， however， you are indulgent， but unable to make your authority felt； kind-hearted， but unable to enforce your commands； and incapable， moreover， of quelling disorder： then your soldiers must be likened to spoilt children； they are useless for any practical purpose.
Zhī wú zú zhī kě yǐ jī, ér bù zhī dí zhī bù kě jī, shèng zhī bàn yě; zhī dí zhī kě jī, ér bù zhī wú zú zhī bù kě yǐ jī, shèng zhī bàn yě;
If we know that our own men are in a condition to attack， but are unaware that the enemy is not open to attack， we have gone only halfway towards victory.
If we know that the enemy is open to attack， but are unaware that our own men are not in a condition to attack， we have gone only halfway towards victory.
Zhī dí zhī kě jī, zhī wú zú zhī kě yǐ jī, ér bù zhī dì xíng zhī bù kě yǐ zhàn, shèng zhī bàn yě. Gù zhī bīng zhě, dòng ér bù mí, jǔ ér bù qióng.
If we know that the enemy is open to attack， and also know that our men are in a condition to attack， but are unaware that the nature of the ground makes fighting impracticable， we have still gone only halfway towards victory.
Hence the experienced soldier， once in motion， is never bewildered； once he has broken camp， he is never at a loss.
Gù yuē: Zhī bǐ zhījǐ, shèng nǎi bù dài; zhī tiān zhī dì, shèng nǎi kě quán.
Hence the saying： If you know the enemy and know yourself， your victory will not stand in doubt； if you know Heaven and know Earth， you may make your victory complete.