The art of war chapter 1 (孙子兵法第一章) in English and Chinese

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The art of war chapter 1 (孙子兵法第一章)

Author: Sun Tzu (Sun Zi)

Cinese version:

第一章 始计篇

孙子曰:兵者,国之大事,死生之地,存亡之道,不可不察也。

故经之以五事,校之以计,而索其情:一曰道,二曰天,三曰地,四曰将、五曰法。道者,令民与上同意也,故可以与之死,可以与之生,而不畏危。天者,阴阳,寒暑、时制也。地者,远近、险易、广狭、死生也。将者,智、信、仁、勇、严也。法者,曲制、官道、主用也。凡此五者,将莫不闻,知之者胜,不知者不胜。故校之以计,而索其情,曰:主孰有道?将孰有能?天地孰得?法令孰行?兵众孰强?士卒孰练?赏罚孰明?吾以此知胜负矣。

将听吾计,用之必胜,留之;将不听吾计,用之必败,去之。计利以听,乃为之势,以佐其外。势者,因利而制权也。

兵者,诡道也。故能而示之不能,用而示之不用,近而示之远,远而示之近;利而诱之,乱而取之,实而备之,强而避之,怒而挠之,卑而骄之,佚而劳之,亲而离之。攻其无备,出其不意。此兵家之胜,不可先传也。

夫未战而庙算胜者,得算多也;未战而庙算不胜者,得算少也。多算胜,少算不胜,而况于无算乎?吾以此观之,胜负见矣。

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Di Yi Zhang : Shi Ji Pian:

Sūn zǐ yuē: Bīng zhě, guó zhī dà shì, sǐ shēng zhī dì, cún wáng zhī dào, bù kě bù chá yě.

Gù jīng zhī yǐ wǔ shì, jiào zhī yǐ jì, ér suǒ qí qíng: Yī yuē dào, èr yuē tiān, sān yuē de, sì yuē jiāng, wǔ yuē fǎ.Dào zhě, lìng mín yǔ shàng tóng yì yě, gù kě yǐ yǔ zhī sǐ, kěyǐ yǔ zhī shēng, ér bù wèi wēi. Tiān zhě, yīn yáng, hán shǔ, shí zhì yě. Di zhě, yuǎn jìn, xiǎn yì, guǎng xiá, sǐ shēng yě. Jiàng zhě, zhì, xìn, rén, yǒng, yán yě. Fǎ zhě, qū zhì, guān dào, zhǔ yòng yě. Fán cǐ wǔ zhě, jiāng mò bù wén, zhī zhī zhě shèng, bù zhì zhě bù shèng. Gù jiào zhī yǐ jì, ér suǒ qí qíng, yuē: Zhǔ shú yǒu dào? Jiāng shú yǒu néng? Tiān dì shú dé? Fǎ lìng shú xíng? Bīng zhòng shú qiáng? Shìzú shú liàn? Shǎng fá shú míng? Wú yǐ cǐ zhī shèng fù yǐ.Jiāng tīng wú jì, yòng zhī bì shèng, liú zhī;

jiāng bù tīng wú jì, yòng zhī bì bài, qù zhī. Jì lì yǐ tīng, nǎi wéi zhī shì, yǐ zuǒ qí wài. Shì zhě, yīn lì ér zhì quán yě.

Bīng zhě, guǐ dào yě. Gù néng ér shì zhī bù néng, yòng ér shì zhī bù yòng, jìn ér shì zhī yuǎn, yuǎn ér shì zhī jìn; lì ér yòu zhī, luàn ér qǔ zhī, shí ér bèi zhī, qiáng ér bì zhī, nù ér náo zhī, bēi ér jiāo zhī, yì ér láo zhī, qīn ér lí zhī. Gōng qí wú bèi, chū qí bù yì. Cǐ bīng jiā zhī shèng, bù kě xiān chuán yě.

Fū wèi zhàn ér miào suàn shèng zhě, dé suàn duō yě; wèi zhàn ér miào suàn bù shèng zhě, dé suàn shǎo yě. Duō suàn shèng, shǎo suàn bù shèng, ér kuàng yú wú suàn hū? Wú yǐ cǐ guān zhī, shèng fù jiàn yǐ.

English Translation:

Chapter 1, Plan:

Sun Tzu said: War is the top priority of the country. It is the key that people live or die. It is the way to determine the survival of the country. It should be seriously studied and investigated .

We should analyze from five aspects and explore the situation of war by comparing the basic conditions of the two sides: first is “policy”, the second is “climate”, the third is “geography”, the fourth is “command”, and the fifth is “ law”. “Policy” is to make the people and the monarch’s thoughts consistent in politics. In this way, the people can share the same life and death with the monarch, not afraid of danger, and will not betray.”Climate” is the sunny or cloudy, cold or hot, and the alternation of the four seasons.” Geography” means that the marching distance is far or near. The terrain of the battlefield is steep or flat. It the terrain wide or narrow, is it a bad terrain or a favorable terrain.”Command” means to see whether the generals have these five qualities : wisdom, trust, benevolence, courage and strictness. “law” refers to the organization system of the troops, the scope of duties of the officers, and the supply management system for military supplies.These five aspects, the generals must be familiar with, but only those who have a deep understanding can win, and those who do not have a thorough understanding can not win. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the situation that war will win or loss by comparing the specific conditions of both sides. These conditions are: Which side’s monarchs is more honesty and integrity, which side’s commander is more talented, which side has more favorable weather and superior terrain, which side‘s military decree performs better,Which side has more troops, and which side’s soldiers has more combat power.Which side’s reward and punishment system is more rigorous. Based on the analysis and comparison of these situations, I can predict the outcome of the war.

The generals who can accept my military thoughts, lead the soldiers to fight, will certainly win, can be appointed; the generals can not accept my military thoughts, leading the battle must fail, should let them leave.If you think my military philosophy is good and acceptable, it will give you a military advantage and assist you from the outside thinking. The so-called military advantage is to seize the favorable opportunity to take appropriate response actions in the event of rapid changes in the war.

Principle of war is based on the tricks. Therefore, if we can do something, we should let the enemy think that we can’t. If we want to make use of something, we should let enemy think that we won’t make use of it,When we are close to enemy, we should let them believe we are far way. If we are far away, we should let them think that we are nearby. If the enemy is greedy, we should use profit to lure and destroy it; if the enemy is in chaos, we should seize the opportunity to destroy it;If the enemy is strong, you must always guard against it; if the enemy is in high spirits, you must pay attention to avoid it’s attack; if the enemy is irritated, we will tease it and make it lose its mind;If the enemy is careful and steady, try to make it confident and arrogant;If the enemy is fully rested, move it and let it fatigue.If the enemy is united inside, we should alienate their relationship. Attack when the enemy is not prepared for battle, and attack in situations that the enemy did not anticipate.These are the secrets of military experts, and cannot be specified or explained in advance.

What is considered to be victorious in the calculations before the war is because there are many conditions for winning; What is considered to be defeated in the calculations before the war is because there are few conditions for winning; If you have more winning conditions, you will win, and if you have less, you will not win. Then, what happens if there is no winning condition? From these comparative analysis, I can give the conclusion of winning or losing!

 

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