CCP refers to China Communist Party，2021 is the 100th anniversary of CCP. CCP is the largest political party in the world, with more than 90 million members. There are only 15 countries in the world with a population of over 90 million, which shows that the CCP is super huge. China is the most populous country in the world, with a population of more than 1.4 billion, effective management of China is a complex issue. As the ruling party in China, how does the CCP manage the state? This video attempts to answer the question from a simple perspective.
China’s core authority is composed of three parts: the party, the government, and the army, of which the party is the core that leads everything. As the ruling party in China, CCP is highly integrated with government agencies and absolutely leads the military.
Let’s look at the party first. The highest authority of the Chinese Communist Party is the National Congress of Party Members. It has a Central Committee， and a Central Disciplinary Committee (CCDI) that oversees it.
The Central Committee establishes the position of general secretary, which is the leader of the party. The Politburo is set up under the Central Committee, and the Politburo Standing Committee is the party’s core decision-making body. In addition, the Central Committee has a Secretariat, which is also an important institution.
Correspondingly, the National People’s Congress is the highest authority of the People’s Republic of China. It has a standing committee that replaces the National People’s Congress to exercise the highest authority most of the time. The National People’s Congress elects the president of the country. The president is China’s head of state. The National People’s Congress also established the Central Military Commission to lead the army. The State Council is the highest government agency in China. It sets up the positions of prime minister, executive deputy prime minister, and deputy prime minister. It consists of the Ministry of National Defense, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Public Security and other departments to perform government functions. The Premier of the State Council is the head of the Chinese government. In addition, the highest central authority includes the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate.
How are the party’s leading institutions and the central government agencies integrated? Refers to making a simple diagram to illustrate this problem:
The first key point is the general secretary. The general secretary of the party concurrently serves as the chairman of the party and the country’s Central Military Commission and concurrently the president. He is both the leader of the party and the head of state.
The second key point is the The Politburo Standing Committee, which is China’s core decision-making body and an important manifestation of the collective leadership system of the Chinese Communist Party. It generally has 7-9 members. The Politburo Standing Committee has 7 members, namely: Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, and Han Zheng. Xi Jinping ranks first. He is the general secretary of the party, the chairman of the Central Military Commission, and the chairman of the state. He is the core of leadership. The second place is Li Keqiang, he is the Premier of the State Council and the head of government. The third place is Li Zhanshu, who is the director of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. The fourth place is Wang Yang, who is the chairman of the CPPCC National Committee. The fifth place is Wang Huning, who is the secretary of the Central Secretariat. The sixth place is Zhao Leji, who is the secretary of the Central Disciplinary Committee. The seventh place is Han Zheng, who is the executive vice premier of the State Council, who is also the government’s number two person.
The central leading agency is located in Beijing, the capital of the People’s Republic of China. The national leadership consists of provincial, prefectural, county, and township-level leadership organizations. Similar to the central leadership, the leadership organizations at all levels are composed of two leadership systems, the party and the government, and are integrated through the party’s standing committee. Taking the provincial leadership as an example, the provincial leadership is located in the provincial capitals. The top four members of the provincial party committee are usually: the secretary of the provincial party committee, the governor, the director of the provincial people’s congress, and the chairman of the provincial CPPCC. Among them, the secretary of the provincial party committee is the top leader and the core of leadership, the governor is the second leader, the head of the government, and the standing committee of the provincial party committee are the highest decision-making bodies at the provincial level.
Apart from the government, the most important thing is the army. The name of China’s army is the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. Unlike most countries, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army accepts the dual leadership of the party and the state. Its first principle is to obey the CCP’s absolute leadership. This is caused by historical reasons and will not be discussed in detail here. The highest military leadership in the country is the Central Military Commission. I believe you can see that in China, there are two Central Military Commissions, namely the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission of the People’s Republic of China. In fact, the members of the two military commissioners are exactly the same. Currently, in 2021, the four core members of the Central Military Commission are Xi Jinping, Xu Qiliang, Zhang Youxia, and Wei Fenghe. Among them, Xi Jinping is the chairman of the Central Military Commission and the highest leader of the military. He is also the general secretary of the party and the president of the country. Wei Fenghe is a member of the Central Military Commission. He also serves as the Minister of National Defense. The Ministry of National Defense is subordinate to the State Council and is responsible for China’s national defense affairs.
Here we can make a simple summary. In China, the party and the government are integrated and highly integrated. The party leads the army, and the army obeys the leadership of the party while defending the country and the people. This is how the Chinese Communist Party manages China, and I hope this will help you.